Add the oil and garlic to the Instant Pot and select the Sauté setting. Let the garlic heat up in the oil for 2 minutes, until the garlic is bubbling but not browned. Add the onion and jalapeño and sauté for 4 more minutes, until the onions are softened and translucent. Add the oregano and sauté for 1 more minute.
Stir in the tomato, black beans, broth, water, and salt, using a wooden spoon to nudge any browned bits from the bottom of the pot.
Secure the lid in the Sealing position. Cancel the cooking program, then select the Bean/Chili, Pressure Cook, or Manual setting and set the cooking time for 45 minutes at high pressure. (It will take about 10 minutes for the pot to come up to pressure before the cooking program begins its countdown.)
When the cooking program ends, let the pressure release naturally for at least 20 minutes, then move the Pressure Release to Venting to release any remaining steam.
Open the pot and stir the beans. Serve warm.